Dreyfus model + dreyfus squared

April 14th, 2019

Dreyfus model

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Novice: needs rules

best practices

nothing else

keep it simple


Advanced beginner: test rules

break rules

test the limits


Competent: applies rules

has internalised


Proficient: falls back on rules

instinct, instinct, insight

don't trust it yet


Expert: transcends rules

no longer think in rules



Dreyfus Squared

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novice + expert = x-(

someone dies

advance + advanced

massive learning

don't put into prod

competent + novice = :-)

proficient + expert = :-D



(src: Video: Patterns of Effective Teams - Dan North)

(origin: Paper: The Five-Stage Model of Adult Skill Acquisition - Stuart E. Dreyfus)